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Gene expression of human beta defensins-1 and -2 is significantly reduced in non-inflamed keratinized oral tissue of smokers » sciencedirect.comShare on Facebook | Share on zahnigroups | Share on ALUMNIGROUPS
hBD-1- and hBD-2-, as well as IL-1β- and IL-6-mRNA were detected in all gingival samples. Expression of hBD-1 and -2 was significantly reduced by nearly 2.5-fold (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney) in gingival samples of smokers compared to control group specimens (non-smokers). In contrast, no significant differences of the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1β were observed in human gingival tissue of smokers and non-smokers. The results presented here suggest that expression of human beta-defensins hBD-1 and -2, and, thus, the basal levels of innate immune defense reactions in the oral cavity are reduced by smoking.